What is RFID technology
Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) was invented by Charles Walton as the as the first patent holder for RFID technology. RFID uses electromagnetic fields radio waves to automatically identify and capture information stored on a RFID card/tag attached objects, where the RFID tag contains electronically-stored information. A RFID tag can be read from up to many meters away depends on the frequency bands, which the most common types are:
Low Frequency, 120-150KHz, low data speed, reading distance about 1 to 10 cm.
High Frequancy, 13.56MHz, low to moderate data speed, reading distance about 2cm to 1 meter.
Ultra-High Frequency, 865-868 MHz (Europe)/902-928 MHz (North America) . moderate to high data speed, reading distance about 1 to 12 meters.
How does it work
RFID technology belongs to a group of technologies referred as Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC). AIDC methods automatically identify objects, collect data as well as enter those data directly into computer systems.
The RFID component on the tag have two parts: a microchip that stores and processes information, and an antenna to receive and transmit the signal. The tag contains the specific serial number for one specific object.
A radio-frequency identification system is made up of two parts: a tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response.